This is by no means a complete list but it includes most of the common knots in use and a few you may not have come across before.
Killick Hitch or Kelleg Hitch - This is a Timber Hitch with a Half Hitch added, usually round a large stone or chunk of rock. Used by small ships on bottoms where an anchor might foul: also used for anchoring lobster pots, small boats, etc.
Definition: a) A small rope for securing the end of a stay. b) A 'handle' for almost anything portable, movable, or losable, e.g. whistles, axes, knives, marlingspikes, etc. Sailors found lanyard making an opportunity for displaying their skill in decorative knotting.
Various knots have been given this name but the Lanyard Knot proper is a stopper knot in the end of a rope (rigging lanyards). The name is also given to decorative knots on the other type of lanyard, particularly the one shown here.
A useful hitch, equally suitable for casks and bales, or keys, knives, whistles or just labels and tags. Can be tied in the bight or with an end. Also known as Cow Hitch, Ring Hitch or, if in a sling, Bale Sling Hitch.
Definition: a) Binding two or more objects together, usually spars, by means of turns of rope. b) To secure a movable object by rope to prevent it shifting, as with deck cargo, etc.
Definition: Common name for cordage, also used to make composite nouns such as lifeline, clothesline, fishline, etc.
An excellent loop knot tied in the bight. It is superior to the Man Harness Knot or Middleman's Knot.
A splice which has no apparent thickening of the rope at the points of joining. Used where a rope has to pass through a block, or for endless belts used in lifts and mining applications, etc. Unfortunately, it is impractical to illustrate.