This is by no means a complete list but it includes most of the common knots in use and a few you may not have come across before.
A knot worked in the end of a rope with the unlaid strands. Occasionally used on its own as a Rope End Knot but more often as part of a more complex knot, e.g., the Man Rope Knot, etc. It is the exact opposite of a Crown Knot
When a rope has to be pulled through water, any knot has a tendency to tighten and jam. In the case of a Bowline, an extra hitch as shown will lessen this tendency.
A weaver frequently has to tie knots and many different ones have been used by him. The one shown here is the one most frequently known by this name: it is the Sheet Bend but tied in a special and rapid manner originally peculiar to the weaver.
When a rope 'whips' in the wind the end will quickly unravel and fray. Protection can be given by a knot or a Back Splice but the best and most used method is to use a Whipping. There are a number of different types used, one of the best known of which is shown here.