This is by no means a complete list but it includes most of the common knots in use and a few you may not have come across before.
Also called the Thumb Knot. Expedient as a bend, secure but weakening to the rope. It is the knot tied by a mechanical binder.
Also called the Simple Knot, Common Knot, Thumb Knot, etc. It is the simplest knot form, secure but weakening the rope considerably and should only be used in small stuff. The Figure-of- Eight Knot is to be preferred.